Writing a research paper is a process that requires special fundamental stages. We have composed general guidelines that can help you making this process more efficient.
Before you begin, consider whether your manuscript meets our policy requirements:
- The manuscript is not being considered or reviewed by any other publication
- The manuscript has not been published elsewhere in the same or a similar form, in full or part
- The work is entirely original and where the work and/or words of others have been used, these are appropriately cited or quoted
- Permission has been obtained to reuse work from other publications
- All eligible authors have been included in the list of authors
- All authors are aware of, and have consented to, the submission to the journal
- Due regard has been paid to ethical considerations
- The manuscript contains no disparaging or unlawful statements
Preparing your manuscript
Authors are advised to refer the instructions for authors before preparing their manuscript. The instructions for authors contain detailed information on:
- Article types and word lengths
- File formats and submission requirements
- Style and presentation guidelines, including spelling and referencing system
- Preparation of figures, tables, and supplementary data
- Copyright, ethics, and open access policy information
Authors who do not have English as their first language may wish to ask a native English speaker or use a language-editing service to improve the written quality of their manuscript before submission.
- Author, Department, Institution, City, State (optional), Country, and Email
- Abstract (approximately 200 words in length)
- Keywords (3 to 5)
- Appendix (optional)
Elements of an Article
The title should be concise, accurate, and informative. Titles are often used by search engines and information retrieval systems. They should contain words that readers might be searching for. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Authors' names and affiliations
Provide the full name, affiliations (where the actual work was done), and contact details for all authors. Present the authors’ affiliations and contact details below the names.
Prepare a concise statement of the aims of the research, the work carried out, and the conclusions. The abstract must be self-contained. The abstract should not exceed 200 words. Do not include general or background information, which should appear in the introduction; abbreviations; or references. Include keywords from the title and for the subject area to improve online searching.
Include keywords for indexing and online searching. Keywords should describe the content of the article and include key phrases for the subject area.
The Introduction is crucially important. By the time a referee has finished the Introduction, he's probably made an initial decision about whether to accept or reject the paper. Integrate a summary of current knowledge including a statement of the aims and motivation of the present work.
Related Work: Like all other sections of the paper, every background/literature review section must have a main point (or a couple of closely related points) and everything you say in it should support that point. "Describing work in related areas" is not a main point. Main point is to convince the reader that your approach is novel (by, e.g., pointing out how it differs from previous approaches). The Related Work can be either a subsection at the end of the Introduction, or its own Section 2.
Body of the paper
The body of the paper includes algorithms, system descriptions, new language constructs, analyses, etc. Whenever possible use a "top-down" description: readers should be able to see where the material is going, and they should be able to skip ahead and still get the idea.
Experimental methods: where appropriate, describe methods employed in sufficient detail to allow others to repeat the work. If a detailed description is given in a reference, readers must be able to grasp the principles of the method without referring elsewhere. Full details must be given of materials and equipment used.
Results and discussion: present results together or as separate sections. Authors must critically discuss and interpret the results, not merely describe the findings. Figures should be used to explain the findings but try not to duplicate information given in tables and figures. Additional information may be provided as supplementary data. Include standard errors or error bars whenever relevant.
Running Example: When possible, use a running example throughout the paper. It can be introduced either as a subsection at the end of the Introduction, or its own Section 2 or 3 (depending on Related Work).
Give a concise summary of the research. The conclusions must not contain information that does not appear elsewhere in the manuscript. The future scope of the research can be included showing how the work sets new research directions.
Provide details of individuals and institutions who have contributed and information required by funding bodies, etc. The acknowledgements may also include copyright information that is too extensive to include elsewhere, and other information (such as the fact that the manuscript is based on a lecture or conference presentation).
No paper is complete without a reference list, documenting all of the sources that you used for your research. Provide a complete list of the literature cited in the manuscript. Format references according to the journal’s style. Spend the effort to make all citations complete and consistent. Check over your final bibliography carefully and make sure every entry looks right.
Use these to provide additional information, tables or mathematical derivations. Appendices should contain detailed proofs and algorithms only. Appendices should not contain any material necessary for understanding the contributions of the paper.
Figure and Tables
Prepare high-resolution and clear figures. Ensure each figure and table has a caption. Keep text in the figure to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Number the figure/tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. They may be placed in the text or collected together at the end of the manuscript.
When you have finished your first draft, you should have enough time left for a few hours of revision. Ideally, you should leave enough time to put the draft aside so that you can forget at least some of what you were thinking when you drafted. Proofread the paper carefully and check the document for accuracy.